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Julian Thomas
Julian Thomas

Alternating Current Fundamentals Pdf Free



Alternating current (AC) is an electric current which periodically reverses direction and changes its magnitude continuously with time in contrast to direct current (DC), which flows only in one direction. Alternating current is the form in which electric power is delivered to businesses and residences, and it is the form of electrical energy that consumers typically use when they plug kitchen appliances, televisions, fans and electric lamps into a wall socket. A common source of DC power is a battery cell in a flashlight. The abbreviations AC and DC are often used to mean simply alternating and direct, respectively, as when they modify current or voltage.[1][2]




Alternating Current Fundamentals Pdf Free



The usual waveform of alternating current in most electric power circuits is a sine wave, whose positive half-period corresponds with positive direction of the current and vice versa. In certain applications, like guitar amplifiers, different waveforms are used, such as triangular waves or square waves. Audio and radio signals carried on electrical wires are also examples of alternating current. These types of alternating current carry information such as sound (audio) or images (video) sometimes carried by modulation of an AC carrier signal. These currents typically alternate at higher frequencies than those used in power transmission.


Electrical energy is distributed as alternating current because AC voltage may be increased or decreased with a transformer. This allows the power to be transmitted through power lines efficiently at high voltage, which reduces the energy lost as heat due to resistance of the wire, and transformed to a lower, safer voltage for use. Use of a higher voltage leads to significantly more efficient transmission of power. The power losses ( P w \displaystyle P_\rm w ) in the wire are a product of the square of the current ( I ) and the resistance (R) of the wire, described by the formula:


A direct current flows uniformly throughout the cross-section of a homogeneous electrically conducting wire. An alternating current of any frequency is forced away from the wire's center, toward its outer surface. This is because an alternating current (which is the result of the acceleration of electric charge) creates electromagnetic waves (a phenomenon known as electromagnetic radiation). Electric conductors are not conducive to electromagnetic waves (a perfect electric conductor prohibits all electromagnetic waves within its boundary), so a wire that is made of a non-perfect conductor (a conductor with finite, rather than infinite, electrical conductivity) pushes the alternating current, along with their associated electromagnetic fields, away from the wire's center. The phenomenon of alternating current being pushed away from the center of the conductor is called skin effect, and a direct current does not exhibit this effect, since a direct current does not create electromagnetic waves.


As written above, an alternating current is made of electric charge under periodic acceleration, which causes radiation of electromagnetic waves. Energy that is radiated is lost. Depending on the frequency, different techniques are used to minimize the loss due to radiation.


Waveguides are similar to coaxial cables, as both consist of tubes, with the biggest difference being that waveguides have no inner conductor. Waveguides can have any arbitrary cross section, but rectangular cross sections are the most common. Because waveguides do not have an inner conductor to carry a return current, waveguides cannot deliver energy by means of an electric current, but rather by means of a guided electromagnetic field. Although surface currents do flow on the inner walls of the waveguides, those surface currents do not carry power. Power is carried by the guided electromagnetic fields. The surface currents are set up by the guided electromagnetic fields and have the effect of keeping the fields inside the waveguide and preventing leakage of the fields to the space outside the waveguide. Waveguides have dimensions comparable to the wavelength of the alternating current to be transmitted, so they are feasible only at microwave frequencies. In addition to this mechanical feasibility, electrical resistance of the non-ideal metals forming the walls of the waveguide causes dissipation of power (surface currents flowing on lossy conductors dissipate power). At higher frequencies, the power lost to this dissipation becomes unacceptably large.


The first alternator to produce alternating current was a dynamo electric generator based on Michael Faraday's principles constructed by the French instrument maker Hippolyte Pixii in 1832.[3] Pixii later added a commutator to his device to produce the (then) more commonly used direct current. The earliest recorded practical application of alternating current is by Guillaume Duchenne, inventor and developer of electrotherapy. In 1855, he announced that AC was superior to direct current for electrotherapeutic triggering of muscle contractions.[4] Alternating current technology was developed further by the Hungarian Ganz Works company (1870s), and in the 1880s: Sebastian Ziani de Ferranti, Lucien Gaulard, and Galileo Ferraris.


In the U.S., William Stanley, Jr. designed one of the first practical devices to transfer AC power efficiently between isolated circuits. Using pairs of coils wound on a common iron core, his design, called an induction coil, was an early transformer. Stanley also worked on engineering and adapting European designs such as the Gaulard and Gibbs transformer for US entrepreneur George Westinghouse, who started building AC systems in 1886. The spread of Westinghouse and other AC systems triggered a push back in late 1887 by Thomas Edison (a proponent of direct current), who attempted to discredit alternating current as too dangerous in a public campaign called the "war of the currents". In 1888, alternating current systems gained further viability with introduction of a functional AC motor, something these systems had lacked up till then. The design, an induction motor, was independently invented by Galileo Ferraris and Nikola Tesla (with Tesla's design being licensed by Westinghouse in the US). This design was further developed into the modern practical three-phase form by Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky, Charles Eugene Lancelot Brown,[28] and Jonas Wenström.


Alternating Current (AC) is a type ofelectrical current, in which the directionof the flow of electrons switches back and forth at regular intervals or cycles.Current flowing in power lines and normal household electricity that comes froma wall outlet is alternating current. The standard current used in the U.S. is60 cycles per second (i.e. a frequency of60 Hz); in Europe and most other parts of the world it is 50 cycles per second(i.e. a frequency of 50 Hz.).


One advantage of alternating current is that it is relatively cheap to changethe voltage of the current. Furthermore, the inevitable loss of energy thatoccurs when current is carried over long distances is far smaller withalternating current than with direct current.


Note: (A) Visualization of Brownian movement of nanoparticles by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) using a laser beam tracing NanoSight LM20/NTA2.3 apparatus. (B) Size distribution (diameters versus numbers) of nanoparticles in hydrogen-rich water generated by alternating current-electrolysis of tap water for 30 minutes as measured by NTA. (C) Size distribution in hydrogen-rich water generated as in B and subjected to boiling and cooling. Nanoparticles after boiling were decreased to 1.9 107/mL, at a rate of 35.2%.


Electricity flows in two ways: either in an alternating current (AC) or in a direct current (DC). Electricity or "current" is nothing but the movement of electrons through a conductor, like a wire. The difference between AC and DC lies in the direction in which the electrons flow. In DC, the electrons flow steadily in a single direction, or "forward." In AC, electrons keep switching directions, sometimes going "forward" and then going "backward."


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